As a Muslim consumer, I have often found myself questioning the halal status of certain foods, particularly when it comes to seafood. In this article, I aim to shed light on the halal status of prawns, debunking common myths and providing factual information to help fellow Muslims make informed dietary choices.

Debunking Myths and Unveiling the Truth

The permissibility of eating prawns in Islam has been a subject of debate among Islamic scholars. This article will examine the evidence and arguments on both sides of this issue.

Definition of Halal

In Islamic law, the term halal refers to things permitted and lawful. It is often used to indicate foods that adhere to Islamic dietary restrictions:

“The word Halal means permissible, and it has been used in Quran in 22 different places in the meaning permissible.”

Foods that are haram or prohibited include pork, alcohol, meat from carnivorous animals, and animals that were not slaughtered according to Islamic procedure.

Overview of the Prawn Debate

Prawns are a type of shellfish and popular seafood. However, some Islamic scholars prohibit prawns because:

  • They argue prawns are not classified as fish, which are explicitly permitted in the Quran and Sunnah.
  • Prawns lack scales and fins, which are attributes of halal sea creatures.

However, most scholars permit prawns because they come from the sea. This article will analyze the evidence from both perspectives.

Arguments that Prawns are Not Halal

Some prominent Islamic institutions and scholars have declared that prawns are haram (impermissible) to eat in Islam. Their main arguments include:

Prawns are not fish

  • Prawns are classified as shellfish, not fish. They belong to the biological order Decapoda, while fish are of the order Perciformes.

    “Prawns fall under the category of ‘sea animals’ and not fish.” 

  • The Quran and Sunnah explicitly allow fish, but do not mention prawns specifically.

Lack of scales and fins

  • Characteristics used to identify halal sea creatures are scales and fins.

    “The Prophet Mohammed (pbuh)صلى الله عليه وسلم prohibited eating animals which have fangs and those which do not have fins and scales.” 

  • Prawns lack these identifiable features, so some argue they do not meet the criteria for permissibility.

Prohibition by Islamic Institutions

  • The influential Dar ul Uloom seminary prohibits prawns:

    “Dar-ul-uloom, Deoband has always maintained that the prawn is impermissible (haraam) to eat.” 

  • Similarly, the Jamia Ashrafia seminary in India has prohibited prawns.

Arguments that Prawns are Halal

However, the majority of Islamic jurists and scholars allow the consumption of prawns, based on the following evidence:

All seafood is halal

  • The Quran explicitly permits all seafood without qualification:

    “Lawful to you is game from the sea and its food as provision for you and the travelers.” (Quran 5:96)

  • This verse does not distinguish between fish and shellfish or specify characteristics.

  • The Prophet Mohammed SAW (pbuh) is also reported to have eaten shrimp, lobster and crab from the sea.

No clear prohibition in Quran or Sunnah

  • There is no clear textual evidence in the primary sources prohibiting prawns specifically.

  • The main hadith cited prohibits aquatic animals without scales. But:

    • It does not mention prawns or shellfish explicitly.
    • Does not clarify if it applies to all sea creatures.

Scholarly Consensus (Ijma)

  • The majority of classical and contemporary scholars allow prawns.

  • This view has been adopted by Shi’a as well as most Sunni schools like Shafi’i, Maliki and Hanbali.

  • Suggests an ijma or consensus on the permissibility of prawns.

Evidence from Islamic Sects

There is some difference of opinion on prawns between the Sunni and Shia schools of jurisprudence:

Views of Sunni Schools

  • Hanafi: Prohibits prawns based on analogy that it resembles prohibited sea creatures.

    “According to the Hanafi School of jurisprudence, prawns are makruh tahrimi (highly disliked bordering prohibition).” 

  • Shafi’i, Maliki, Hanbali: Permit prawns as they are from the sea.

Views of Shia Scholars

  • Majority permit: Most Shia marjas allow prawns as halal seafood.

  • Minority prohibit: Some prohibit prawns or consider them makruh based on precautionary principles.

Conflicting Hadiths

  • Hadiths cited permitting prawns:

    “Its water is purifying and its dead are permissible (to eat).” 

  • Hadith cited prohibiting creatures without scales:

    “Prohibited is everything from the sea that does not have scales.”

Practical Considerations To Eat Prawns

Beyond the textual evidence, there are some practical considerations in the prawn debate:

  • Prawns are commercially harvested and exported globally.
  • They are part of cuisine and dietary traditions of Muslim communities worldwide.

Avoidance may be difficult

  • In certain regions, prawns may be a staple food source. Complete avoidance may be difficult.

  • Dining situations where avoiding prawns is impractical or would cause offense.

Not compulsory to avoid 

  • Those who prohibit prawns consider them makruh (disliked) rather than haram (forbidden).

  • Some flexibility allowed in cases of need or hardship.

“One is not sinful if he eats prawn mistakenly or in situations where he has no other choice.” 

Is Prawns Halal – Frequently Asked Questions

Yes, prawns are considered halal in Islamic law. According to the Hanafi school of thought, prawns are classified as a type of fish, and thus it is permissible to eat them.

What is the ruling regarding prawns in Islam?

According to the Hanafi scholars, prawns are considered halal. The Chief Mufti of a Hyderabad-based Islamic seminary has labeled prawns as permissible to eat, as they fall under the category of marine animals, including prawns, which are considered fish.

Can Hanafi adherents eat prawns?

Yes, within the Hanafi school of thought, it is considered halal to consume prawns. The Hanafi scholars regard prawns as a type of fish, which makes it permissible for Hanafi adherents to eat.

Are there any differences of opinion regarding prawns being halal or haram?

Yes, there is a difference of opinion among scholars regarding the permissibility of consuming prawns. While the Hanafi school considers prawns as halal, the Shafi’i school of thought holds the view that prawns are not permissible to eat.

What does Islamic law say about eating prawns?

Islamic law permits the consumption of prawns according to the Hanafi school of thought, which categorizes prawns as a type of fish. However, it is important to note that other schools of thought may have different interpretations and rulings.

Is there any hadith that mentions the permissibility of prawns?

There is no specific hadith that mentions prawns being halal or haram. The permissibility of prawns is derived from the classification of prawns as a type of fish within the Hanafi school of thought.

Can you provide a fatwa regarding prawns?

Various fatwas have been issued regarding the permissibility of consuming prawns. According to the Hanafi school of thought, prawns are considered halal. However, it is recommended to consult a qualified mufti for specific fatwas related to prawns in your locality.

Are prawns considered fish?

Yes, prawns are considered a type of fish within the Hanafi school of thought. Therefore, they are permissible to eat according to this school of Islamic jurisprudence.


In conclusion, this article has analyzed the major evidence and arguments regarding the permissibility of prawns in Islam:

Summary of Debate

  • There are good faith differences on the halal status of prawns in Islam.
  • Arguments exist prohibiting prawns based on analogy and precaution.
  • However, most scholars permit prawns as general seafood under the Quran.

Need for Further Research

  • More scholarly analysis needed on the textual evidence and basis for prohibition.
  • Examination of scientific classification of prawns and relation to texts.

Implications for Muslims

  • Differences of opinion among schools allows flexibility for Muslims.
  • Caution should be exercised in ambiguous matters of halal and haram.
  • Goal should be following scripture as well as unity and tolerance.